Kiskő

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Kiskő
Kiskő

Geosite. Open for the public.

Natural area of local importance.


Location, approach


When mentioning the protected area, we can often find the name "Kiskő of Bárna", although the area belongs to Szilaspogony administratively. The 379 meters high Kiskő basalt stands on the eastern edge of the Medves-Ajnácskő basalt area and rises 25-30 meters from the environment. The easiest way to reach the Kiskő volcanic cone is from Szilaspogony, through the dirt road in the Cikorád Valley from the northwest to the Kiskő neck.


Formation, geomorphological characteristics


Examining the geological structure of Kiskő, we can make many special discoveries. The lower two-thirds of the cone is made up of layers of yellow, sand, sandstone, with volcanic rock emerging only at the peak. The 20-25 million-year-old seabed of 50-100 m depth should be followed by a series of shallow sea and then inland rivers. In the vicinity of Kiskő, these are missing, or they have been destroyed by erosion, they have not developed locally, or they have not surfaced due to the coverage.
The so-called "lower-rhyolite tuff" of volcanic origin at the tip of the Kiskő is probably located directly on the glauconite sandstone, the fragments of which are known. The rhyolite tuff is not followed by well-known coal deposits in the area. Sediments and volcanic formations from Kiskő are missing for more than 15 million years. They probably did form, but they were the victims of erosion during the land phase preceding the basalt volcanism. Basalt volcanism has taken place in several stages 2.4 million years ago. In the first stage, basalt tuff appeared on the surface through the erupted chimney, from which a tuff rampart could form around the chimney. In the second stage, through the central chimney the bombs and blocks have surfaced, forming the material of the current peak. In the last phase of volcanic activity, this was broken by a basalt lode.


Flora and fauna


The rock and surrounding forests provide habitat for the following plants. The bladder-senna (Colutea arborescens) is also widespread on basalt bedrock in downy-oak shrubs and in drier shrub-toe-free oaks. The Fumewort (Corydalis solida) is also present in isolated populations. In fact, on the ruins of Oligocene strata in the gorge forests, the Ragwort (Senecio hercynicus) occurs. Sword-leaved Helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia) and Small-leaved Helleborine (Epipactis microphylla) are also found sporadically in oak and beech forests. The Michel's Sedge (Carex michelii) can be sporadically found in downy oak trees and shrub-sessile oak trees. The area has very small, fragmentary populations of Orphan maidenhair (Stipa pennata) on the basalt soils of the southern exposures. Specimens of Lesser Butterfly-Orchid (Platanthera bifolia), Maiden Pink (Dianthus deltoides) and Dusty Miller (Lychnis coronaria) are also found in the area. Several specimens of the protected scarce swallowtail (Iphiclides podalirius) and Old World swallowtail (Papilio machaon) can be seen near the rock peak, the older oak trees provide an ideal habitat for the Stag Beetle (Lucanus cervus), a rare variant of this species is ab. capreolousis can be found in the area.


Sights to see


The most spectacular and exciting part of Kiskő is its cave formed in basalt. From the summit there is a 'natural' entrance, which is 14 meters in size along with the cavern. It also has an artificially designed horizontal cavern. There are several explanations for the origin of the cave. It was previously explained by the gas bladder stuck in the basalt and later by tectonic motions. The earliest written record of the cave dates back to 1865. According to the legend, its cavity is a "treasure-trove". According to folk tradition, the Turks lived there. This rumor did not leave the Tarna Valley owner, Gejza Kemény, at ease. Between 1909 and 1910, with three men from Pogony, he cut a nearly 10 meters long horizontal barn into hard basalt. However, no treasure was found. There are three other artificial repositories in the area that are likely to have been created for the purpose of coal exploration.

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2023/1 2. The first few days

2023/1 2. The first few days

04/19/2023 2:37 PM
Am 14. Maerz stieg ich ins Flugzeug in Richtung Budapest. Natürlich war ich ziemlich aufgeregt und gespannt. Ich war vorher noch nie in Ungarn. Wie werden die Leute dort sein und wie wird meine neue Heimatstadt aussehen? Was wird mich im Bükk-Region Geopark erwarten? Fragen über Fragen… Glücklicherweise wurde ich von Balázs am Flughafen abgeholt und meine Aufregung legte sich etwas nach dem herzlichen Empfang. Auf dem Weg in die Wohnung machten wir sogar noch einen Zwischenstopp bei Aldi, da am 15. Maerz ein Feiertag in Ungarn ist (Gedenktag der Revolution von 1848) und die Geschaefte geschlossen hatten. Ich nutzte den freien Tag direkt, um etwas die Innenstadt zu erkunden. Dort habe ich den Dobó-István-Platz, das Rathaus, sowie die Basilika gesehen. Erster Eindruck? Hier laessts sich aushalten! Am Samstag hat mich Balázs und sein Vater auf eine Wanderung im nahegelegenen Aggtelek Nationalpark eingeladen. Wir marschierten im Wald 15 km entlang der slowakischen Grenze von Aggtelek in Richtung Gömörszőlős. Kurz vor unserem Ziel wurden wir noch mit einem schönen weitlaeufigen Ausblick belohnt. Dort konnten wir bis zum Mátra-Gebirge sehen! In Gömörszőlős, wo es unter Anderem ein ökologisches Ausbildungszentrum gibt, haben wir dann zusammen noch zu Abend gegessen (Ungarische Gulaschsuppe) und den Abend mit einem Kartenspiel ausklingen lassen (auf ungarisch gar nicht so einfach ;) ) Es war ein sehr schöner Tag, vor allem, da ich von allen Teilnehmern herzlich empfangen und direkt in die Gemeinschaft aufgenommen wurde. Am Sonntag stand dann die Besichtung der Burg von Eger an. Von dort hat man einen guten Ausblick über die Stadt. Im Keller der Burg befindet sich eine Ausstellung zu einer der grössten Waffensammlung in Ungarn und es kann das ehemalige Verlies besichtigt werden. Für Geschichtsinteressierte sehr interessant!
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